The contemporary experience with ground icing has provided some hard lessons, leading over the past twenty years to a much more robust set of defenses against these types of accidents. While Air Florida is perhaps the best known, it was the accidents of USAir 405 and Continental 1713, coupled with the Dryden Fokker accident in Canada, that really spurred the changes we are familiar with today.

Nonetheless, attempts are still made to takeoff with ice or frost contamination, with the same disastrous outcome.

Allegheny 561

Mohawk/Frakes 298
Clarksburg, West Virginia
February 12, 1979

Air Florida 90

Boeing 737
Washington, DC
January 13, 1982

Pilgrim 35

Fokker F-27
New York, New York
January 13, 1984 

Continental 1713

Douglas DC-9-14
Denver, Colorado
November 15, 1987

Ryan 590

Douglas DC-9-15
Cleveland, Ohio
February 17, 1991

USAir 405

Fokker F-28 Mk. 4000
New York, New York
March 22, 1992


Bombardier CL-600
Montrose, Colorado
November 28, 2004